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Pharmacology is a branch of pharmaceutical science, which involves the study of drugs or the effects of drugs. Drugs can be defined as artificial, natural or endogenous (body) molecule that produces biochemical or physiological effects on drugs. Cells, tissues, organs (sometimes the term PharmaKon is used to build these endogenous and exogenous biologically active substances). More specifically, it is the interaction between a graduated object and a chemical that affects normal or abnormal biochemical functions.

Advances in pharmacological testing
Medicine development and safety testing
Dose response relation in psychiatric medications
Nutritional deficiency and disorders
Drug legislation and Safety

Toxicity is defined as the study of the side effects of biological chemicals. It is the study of poisoning, especially the symptoms, mechanism, treatment and detection of human poisoning. In 2014, the global market value of selected healthcare-acquired infection (HAI) treatments was close to 15.2 billion U.S. dollars. The market is expected to grow from nearly 17.1 billion U.S. dollars in 2015 to 23 billion U.S. dollars in 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.1% from 2015 to 2020.

Dose response complexities
Computational toxicology
Clinical Toxicology
Toxins and toxicology
Forensic Toxicology

Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the functioning of cells in the nervous system and the neural mechanisms by which drugs affect behavior. Psychopharmacology has two main areas: behavior and molecules. Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses primarily on research on the effects of drugs on human behavior, including research on how drug addiction and addiction affect the human brain. Molecular neuropharmacology includes the overall goal of drug development with beneficial effects on neural function and the study of neurochemical interactions with neurons. Because these two areas are related to the interaction of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, neuromodulators, enzymes, second messengers, airborne sonches, ion channels, and receptor proteins in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Closely linked. Researchers studying these interactions are developing drugs to treat a variety of neurological disorders, including pain, neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, psychiatric disorders, and addictions.

Neurogenesis and repair
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease
Neurochemical interactions
Molecular neuropharmacology
Behavioral neuropharmacology
Neuro Immune pharmacology and its associated diseases
Psychotherapy and innovative psychopharmacological approaches
Dose response relation in psychiatric medications

Pharmaceutical technology is the application of a field of knowledge or technology to pharmaceuticals, pharmacology, and therefore the pharmaceutical industry. It is also known as the science of dosage design. There are many chemicals with pharmacological properties, but special measures are required to ensure that appropriate amounts of treatment can be reached at the site of action. Pharmaceuticals help link the preparation of drugs to their distribution and availability in the body. Pharmaceuticals involves the preparation of pure pharmaceutical substances in dosage forms. A branch of a pharmacy that includes a pharmacy that dispenses, manufactures and dispenses pharmaceutical products.

Behavioral pharmacology is a mature science that has made significant contributions to the study of the effects of drugs on behavior, especially in the realm of drug-action interactions. A little-evaluated behavioral pharmacology study is that it can, and has also influenced, the experimental analysis of behavior, particularly its concepts and theories.

The endocrine system uses endogenous chemicals called hormones to help maintain internal homeostasis. A hormone is generally thought of as a chemical messenger released into the bloodstream to act on target cells located some distance from the site of release of the hormone. Different endocrine glands make and release specific hormones that help regulate physiological processes such as reproduction, growth and development, energy metabolism, fluid and electrolyte balance, and stress response. straight and traumatized.
The use of drugs that regulate and help regulate endocrine function is an important area of pharmacology. In a sense, hormones can be thought of as drugs made from the patient's body. This situation provides a clear opportunity for exogenous chemicals to be used to mimic or mitigate the effects of certain hormones during endocrine dysfunction.


This website describes drugs used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The content emphasizes the biophysical, biochemical, and cellular bases of pharmacotherapy. It is my hope that by releasing this website, it will be able to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the general pharmacological principles and mechanisms of action of cardiovascular drugs, as well as, more importantly, an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The rationale for drug use.

Pharmacology of drugs affecting vascular tone and blood pressure
Role of drugs in coronary circulation
Drugs and the electrical conduction of the heart

Pharmacotherapy (pharmacology) is the treatment of a disorder or disease by drug therapy. Treatment of addiction uses drugs to reduce the likelihood of use or relapse by reducing the intensity of withdrawal symptoms, reducing cravings for alcohol or other drugs, and blocking the effects of certain drugs.

Pharmacology for nurses is one of the most important components of nursing education. This is the area of science that deals with the administration of drugs according to the patient's medical record. This is a track designed during the 2016 Pharmacology conference. The pharmaceutical industry is directly affected by the research done on prescription drugs, vaccines and over-the-counter drugs produced on the basis of the results of the research. Life science. Clinical trials are conducted to ensure that the products under development are tested for their effectiveness on people affected by the diseases or conditions they were created to treat

Clinical nursin
Nursing Implications
Women and cardiac diseases
Health promotion/Disease prevention

Drug development is of vital concern to medicine. The metabolic stability and reactivity of the candidate drug compound library should be evaluated for drug metabolism and toxicity studies. Many pharmacological test methods have been proposed for the quantitative prediction of drug metabolism. The BCC Research reports cover the latest pharmaceutical market and provide market analysis, forecast, trends, patent analysis and profiles of major market players. A comprehensive analysis of clinical studies on biopharmaceuticals, prevention and treatment of certain cancers, coagulants and non-coagulants are all covered by the pharmaceutical market covered in BCC Research. Drug devices, instrumentation and inhibitors are some of the many other areas covered.

Advances in Stress test
Advances in nuclear stress test
Safety pharmacology

Pharmacogenomics refers to how all genes (genomes) affect the response to a drug. A common feature of these various lesions is the covalent attachment of two nucleotides in the other's chain. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are clearly related. Understanding the specificity of bacterial mutations has had direct implications for specific environmental mutations that cause cancer in humans. The strategy of the pharmaceutical industry to gamble big on many of the long-successful molecules and to solicit them and turn them into big hits has worked well for years, but R&D productivity is declining and the environment is changing. Regulators are more careful when approving truly innovative drugs.

Drug biotransformation reactions
Pharmacokinetic aspects
Drug interactions and pharmacological compatibilities
Receptor theory for drug effects
Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation
Novel options for the Pharmacological Treatment of Chronic diseases
Forensic Toxicology

Medicines and vaccinations have revolutionized illness prevention and treatment. Medicinal products may have side effects in addition to their advantages, some of which may be unwanted and/or unexpected. The research and activities relating to the identification, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or any other medicine/vaccine-related concern are referred to as pharmacovigilance. Before being approved for use, all medications and vaccines must pass stringent safety and efficacy tests in clinical trials. The clinical trial method, on the other hand, entails testing these products on a small number of people over a short period of time. Certain negative effects may only become apparent after these products have been used by a diverse population, including persons with various disorders, for an extended period of time.

Clinical pharmacology has practiced for centuries to observe the effects of herbal remedies and primary medicines on humans.The pharmacological effect of a drug on the body is called pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic parameters are important for the association between host drug concentration, microbial eradication and resistance. Since many years of scientific development have allowed scientists to combine the study of biological and physiological effects, the discovery of drug effect receptors in the theory and clinical pharmacology has been. Extended to multidisciplinary fields, drug interactions, therapeutic efficacy and safety. Drug interactions, and pharmacological compatibility, include pharmacokinetic studies involving absorption, distribution, metabolism, and deletion of drugs. The pharmacological effects of drugs on the body are known as pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters are particularly important for the association between the abolition and resistance of the applied microorganism of the drug.

Drug development and interactions
Adverse Drug Effects
Receptor theory for drug effects
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters

Pharmacokinetics, sometimes described as what the body does to a drug, refers to the movement of a drug in, through, and out of the body - absorption, bioavailability, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the drug. The pharmacokinetics of a drug depends on patient factors as well as the chemical properties of the drug. Several patient factors (eg, renal function, genetic makeup, sex, age) can be used to predict population pharmacokinetics.

Absorption and Bioavailability
Volume of Distribution
Drug Metabolism
Drug Elimination
Interactive: Visualizing Volume of Distribution
Clinical Linkage: Anesthesia in the Operating Room

Pharmacodynamics, along with pharmacokinetics (the effect of the body on the drug and the fate of the drug in the body), helps to explain the relationship between volume and response, the action of the drug. The pharmacological response depends on the binding of the drug to the target. The drug concentration at the receptor site affects the effectiveness of the drug.

Drug Targets and Action
Drug Action at Receptors
Pharmacodynamic Representations
Drug-Receptor Binding
Dose-Response Curves
Application: Opioid Potency

Biochemistry is a discipline of science that studies the chemical processes that occur within living organisms and are related to them. It's a biology and chemistry-based laboratory science. Biochemists use chemical knowledge and tools to investigate and address biological problems.
The study of cellular components, pathways, and networks as they may be influenced by drugs to elicit therapeutic responses is known as molecular pharmacology. G protein coupled receptor signal transduction, ion channel physiology, lipid signalling, and neurotransmitter regulation are among the research strengths of the Department of Pharmacology.

The level of harm that a substance can inflict to an organism is referred to as drug toxicity. A drug's toxicity is dose-dependent and can damage a whole system, such as the CNS, or a single organ, such as the liver. Toxicity refers to the extent to which a chemical substance or a mixture of chemicals can harm an organism. When bug or spider venom acts as a poison in the body, it causes a harmful reaction. This type of reaction can result from a single bite or sting from a very deadly bug or spider, or from several bites or stings from non-poisonous insects or spiders. Your age, weight, and overall health have an impact on the outcome. Poisoning might have short-term consequences, such as a rash or a mild sickness. It can result in brain damage, a coma, or death in severe situations. The most prevalent type of acute poisoning is ethanol intoxication, and the most common type of suicide by poisoning is medicinal medication overdose. Smoke inhalation or illegal drug usage are the most common causes of acute poisoning death. If this is the case, you may be placing yourself at danger of an overdose from an over-the-counter (OTC) pain reliever or fever medicine. When used as indicated, pain relievers are generally safe. Overdosing on these medications, however, can result in liver damage, gastrointestinal bleeding, and kidney illness.

Petrochemicals, medications, insecticides, cosmetics, food and drink, and domestic items all require the expertise of an industrial toxicologist. Every corporation that manufactures a product or substance owes it to its customers a duty of care to guarantee that the product is safe for its intended purpose. This implies that many businesses must ensure that the items they offer (and the chemicals that make them up) do not endanger human health. This implies that many businesses must ensure that the items they offer (and the chemicals that make them up) do not endanger human health. They must evaluate not just whether the product is hazardous to consumers, but also to factory workers, professions who may be exposed to a product more frequently than the average consumer (such as hairdressers), and if the product may affect the environment once it has been used.

Food and Chemical Toxicology (FCT) is the study of the harmful effects of natural and manufactured chemicals in the human environment on animals and humans, with a focus on food, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals, as well as agricultural and industrial safety and consumer product safety. Safety evaluation of innovative foods and ingredients, biotechnologically generated goods, and nanomaterials are only a few examples.

In genetics, genotoxicity refers to a chemical agent's ability to damage a cell's genetic information, resulting in mutations that can lead to cancer. While genotoxicity and mutagenicity are sometimes mistaken, all mutagens are genotoxic, whereas not all mutagenic chemicals are genotoxic.

Toxins produced by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, are known as microbial toxins. Microbial toxins aid in the spread of infection and disease by causing direct damage to host tissues and weakening the immune system. Botulinum neurotoxins, for example, are among the most potent natural toxins known.

The detection, identification, and measurement of foreign chemicals (xenobiotics) in biological and other material is known as analytical toxicology. Chemicals, pesticides, medicines, illicit substances, and natural poisons are among the components for which analytical methods are available.

When an element is in excess of a plant's demands, it causes nutrient toxicity, which reduces plant growth or quality. Symptoms of nutrient insufficiency or toxicity vary widely among plant species and types. Plant poisoning in animals is usually unintentional, and it happens most commonly in unfavourable conditions such as drought, veldt fires, overstocking, and grazing trampling. It could be unintentional or intentional in people.

Medical toxicology is a branch of medicine that focuses on diagnosing and treating poisoned and envenomated patients. Medication side effects, occupational and environmental poisons, and biological agents are all examples of this.

The study of the harmful effects of chemical substances on the human body is known as Human toxicology. A substance's toxicity is determined by its method of action as well as the amount or concentration consumed. Only a well-founded assessment of the relationships between environmental elements and human health can provide a solid foundation for politics and society in order to protect the environment and living conditions.

The study of the effects of a chemical substance on aquatic species is known as aquatic toxicity, and it is usually done on organisms representing the three trophic levels, namely vertebrates (fish), invertebrates (crustaceans like Daphnia), and plants (algae). Because water and food are the principal channels for harmful compounds to reach animals in the aquatic environment, chemical and physical causes of sickness in aquatic creatures are usually linked to them.
To assess the toxicity of effluents to aquatic life, short-term sublethal studies are utilized. The EPA developed these procedures, which primarily focus on the most vulnerable life phases. Changes in growth, reproduction, and survival are among the test's endpoints.

The major responsibility of a forensic toxicologist is to provide information to the judicial system on the effects of drugs and poisons. They are frequently senior toxicologists with extensive competence in other aspects of toxicology, such as analytical chemistry. They may appear in court as an expert witness to describe and explain the evidence pertaining to the case after gathering and evaluating the available toxicological evidence. These investigations can range from basic "drink-driving" incidents to tragic accident, suicide, and murder investigations involving poisoning, whether deliberate or accidental.

To separate, identify, and quantify drugs, endogenous molecules, and hazardous substances in forensic samples, forensic toxicologists employ advanced analytical processes. The sample matrix might vary widely, including body fluids, plant materials, and drug paraphernalia, and only little amounts of sample can often be obtained from the crime scene or the mortuary. They must evaluate the importance of this analytical data in order to find links between exposure levels and clinical outcomes. It's critical to comprehend how a chemical's metabolism might impact its concentration as well as its pharmacological or hazardous effects. Drug-drug interactions, tolerance, age-related effects, post-mortem redistribution, and individual variability should all be taken into account. The major responsibility of a forensic toxicologist is to provide information to the judicial system on the effects of drugs and poisons. They are frequently senior toxicologists with extensive competence in other aspects of toxicology, such as analytical chemistry.

The study of the hazardous effects of substances on the aquatic and terrestrial environment is known as Ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicologists research the direct impacts of toxic substances on individual organisms and species in food webs, with the goal of forecasting consequences on animal populations, ecosystems, and human food supplies like fish and shellfish. Ecotoxicologists conduct ecotoxicity studies and risk assessments on new chemicals that may be used, disposed of, or otherwise reach the environment in order to better understand (and, ideally, forecast and prevent) unwanted outcomes in the natural environment. They are frequently involved in conducting in-depth monitoring studies of invertebrates and fish in polluted rivers and estuaries, examining species at multiple stages of the food chain. It may also be required to monitor organisms' physiological and biochemical responses after exposure to a pollutant, as these responses may indicate a hazardous effect. Sub-lethal impacts such as changes in behaviour, development, or reproduction may be just as critical for a species' survival as deadly consequences in many circumstances.

Nanotoxicology is a discipline of toxicology that studies the toxicity of nanomaterials originating from combustion processes (such as diesel soot), manufacturing processes (such as spray drying or grinding), and naturally occurs. It is an understanding the extent to which nanomaterials (materials with at least one dimension of less than 100 nanometers) constitute a risk to human health and the environment. Nanoscale materials may have biological effects that differ from those generated by their bigger counterparts due to their small size, huge surface area-to-volume ratio, and quantum size effects.

Inhalation is the most common method of administering medications to patients with lung or airway illnesses, as well as a major source of inadvertent exposure when chemicals and agrochemicals are manufactured, handled, or used. To adequately analyze the effects of inhaled substances, safety evaluation for inhalation toxicology necessitates experience and particular capabilities.
The history of inhalation toxicology as a separate discipline can be traced back more than a century. The materials and designs used to build inhalation chambers, as well as the equipment needed to create controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapours, dusts, and droplets, have advanced. The development of new equipment for giving metered dose inhalers, a relatively new topic, has led to the development of new equipment for administering this unique dosage type. The measures used to assess inhalation toxicity are the same as those used to assess toxicity by any other route of delivery. Furthermore, there are several specific approaches for early detection of pulmonary toxicity, particularly in children.

Toxicological Risk Assessment (TRA) is critical to patient safety because it assesses the potential health risks associated with exposure to leachable impurities, toxins, or other residues in a medical device or medicinal product. Toxikon can assist you in evaluating choices and developing techniques that efficiently and effectively meet regulatory standards.

Hazard identification and data evaluation
Exposure assessment
Dose-response analysis
Risk characterization