Pharmacogenomics refers to how all genes (genomes) affect the response to a drug. A common feature of these various lesions is the covalent attachment of two nucleotides in the other's chain. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are clearly related. Understanding the specificity of bacterial mutations has had direct implications for specific environmental mutations that cause cancer in humans. The strategy of the pharmaceutical industry to gamble big on many of the long-successful molecules and to solicit them and turn them into big hits has worked well for years, but R&D productivity is declining and the environment is changing. Regulators are more careful when approving truly innovative drugs.

Drug biotransformation reactions
Pharmacokinetic aspects
Drug interactions and pharmacological compatibilities
Receptor theory for drug effects
Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation
Novel options for the Pharmacological Treatment of Chronic diseases
Forensic Toxicology